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Whenever i equals j (hukou homogamy), both x

record F cijkl = Equation 2 + ? x ijkl + ? y ijkl + ? c ( ? x ijkl ) + ? c ( ? y ijkl )

ijkl and yijkl equal 0. xijkl indicates local-spouse-hypergamy (migrant spouse is more educated than local spouse), and yijkl indicates local-spouse-hypogamy (migrant spouse is less educated than local spouse). Thus, when i equals 0 and j equals 1 (migrant husband and local wife), xijkl equals 1 if k > l and 0 otherwise, yijkl equals 1 if k < l>

2nd, we scale ining how probability of hukou intermarriage changes which have for every single spouse’s training (Gullickson and you may Torche, 2014), and we next consider type for the industry exchange among them towns.

diary F cijkl = Formula dos + ? p = step one dos ? p you pij + ? q = step one dos ? q w qij + ? c ? p = step one 2 ? p u pij + ? c ? q = 1 dos ? q w qij

When i equals j (hukou homogamy), both upij and wqij equal 0. upij measures the education effects for migrant spouses to form hukou intermarriages, and wqij measures the education effects for local spouses to form hukou intermarriages. When i equals 0 and j equals 1 (migrant husband and local wife), upij equals 1 if k >p and wqij equals 1 if l > q; when i equals 1 and j equals 0 (local husband and migrant wife), upij equals 1 if l > p and wqij equals 1 if k > q.

Thus, this model estimates separately how migrants’ and locals’ likelihoods of marrying across hukou boundaries change as their educations change. Specifically, ?p and ?q capture how the log-odds of hukou intermarriage change for migrants and locals, respectively, when moving up one level of education from either p or q (e.g., from less than high school to high school). Positive values of ? indicate that the odds of hukou intermarriage increase as migrant spouses’ educations increase, and negative values indicate that the odds of hukou intermarriage decrease as migrant spouses’ educations increase. ? provides the same information for local spouses. We expect ? to be positive and S to be negative, and we expect n and ? to be less pronounced in Shanghai than in Shenzhen.

Detailed Show

Descriptive results in Table step one reveal hukou locality pairings of spouses from the area. During the Shanghai, on 47% out of micro-census were developed between a few migrants; in the Shenzhen, you to definitely payment are more 70%. Throughout the 38% of marriage ceremonies on it a few regional partners into the Shanghai, while 15% from marriage ceremonies got several regional partners from inside the Shenzhen. Demonstrably, anybody had a tendency to wed within their hukou updates classification in both metropolitan areas. In both cities, marriages anywhere between a location husband and you may a good migrant partner was indeed far apt to be than just marriages between a beneficial migrant spouse and you will a district wife to happen (13% against. 3% inside the Shanghai and you will eleven% compared to. 4% during the Shenzhen). The brand new percentage of hukou locality homogamy is comparable throughout the one or two cities https://kissbrides.com/fi/indonesialaiset-naiset/. But really, we need to interpret the outcomes with warning, given that express away from migrants differs throughout these a few places. New relative measurements of migrants and residents brings structural relationship opportunities for those to seek prospective spouses and in the end ). Log-linear analysis lets us view the amount of hukou homogamy, web of your own compositional consequences, from the dealing with to own limited distributions off hukou status.

Desk step one.

I basic expose the latest distributions from studies attainment for migrant husbands, regional husbands, migrant wives, and you may regional wives when you look at the for every area, respectively, for the Shape 1 . On average, migrants are shorter educated than simply natives, regardless of gender, in both Shanghai and you can Shenzhen. Certainly migrants, men are best educated than simply feamales in each other Shanghai and you can Shenzhen. In contrast, certainly natives, the brand new gender gap during the knowledge is either brief if you don’t corrected: regional guys on average are merely quite greatest educated than simply its women alternatives in the Shenzhen, and you may regional female on average be a little more experienced than simply its men competitors from inside the Shanghai. Log-linear habits handle with the training inequalities anywhere between anyone and you will between neighbors and you can migrants to recapture the relationships ranging from spouses’ education and you will between educational and you may hukou area assortative mating, online of the marginal withdrawals regarding spouses’ characteristics.